October 13

American Wolves Teach Us About Australian Dingoes

American Wolves Teach Us About Australian Dingoes

Although we know that introduced wolves predators like cats and foxes pose a threat to Australia’s wildlife. What are the best ways to manage them? Dingoes, according to many Australian ecologists, are part of the solution because they can control feral predators. Although it’s controversial, new research about North American wolves supports this idea.

We have been conducting research through a Fulbright Commission grant to Australia-American. Fulbright Commission to better understand dingoes’ role in Australian ecosystems. This done by looking at North American wolves. These results were publish in the Journal of Animal Ecology this week.

Why Are Wolves Important?

As part of predator control programs, wolves were almost exterminate. In the United States mainland (except Alaska) during the last two centuries. However, wolves were reintroduce in Yellowstone National Park and the surrounding areas under the US Endanger Species Act 1995-1996. This law requires that endanger species be restore where possible.

Numerous studies on Yellowstone wolves show that they have a rapid impact on the park ecosystem. They mainly do this by decreasing the prey population. We are also curious about how wolves interact and co-exist with other predators such as red foxes and coyotes, as wolves continue to recolonize new areas in the United States.

Because wolves are larger predators, we hypothesized that coyotes would be less likely to have wolves as pets. We also hypothesized that coyotes would reduce the number of foxes, so where coyotes are present we should expect more foxes. These interactions were explore by analysing red fox and coyote fur trapping data in North America, both with and without wolves.

Who Is The Top Wolves Dog In This World?

Since the early 1900s, coyotes, red foxes, and wolves have co-existed in Alaska, Yukon, and the NW Territories. The fur-trapping records have shown that coyotes were never more numerous than foxes in areas where wolves live. However, records from areas without wolves are a different story. Coyotes significantly expand their historical distribution as wolves were extinct in many of the lower 48 United States. In the 1970s, coyotes had spread from the middle of America to Maine and New Brunswick to Nova Scotia by 1980.

Although coyotes have only recently colonized Maine, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia, fur returns data show that it took only 20-30 years for them to outnumber red Foxes, in the absence of wolves. These results support the idea that wolves can have an impact on smaller predators further down the food chain. These results show that wolves cause a shift in balance across the continent when they were kill off across large swathes of the United States.

We wanted to find out what happens when coyotes and wolves meet. This done by analysing fur trapping records from Saskatchewan, Manitoba and central Canada. Both the north and south home to wolves, while they not found in the provinces. You can see coyotes and wolves in the provinces.

The fur records show that red foxes are outnumber by coyotes in the south, where there no wolves. This is consistent with our hypothesis. Red foxes are significantly more likely to be present in areas where wolf are absent, with an average of four to one and at extremes of 500 to 1 at one location. There is however a 200-kilometre transition zone, where there are not enough wolves to balance the balance between red foxes and coyotes.

The Magic Number Of Wolves

The possibility that wolf can reduce the number of coyotes could help other species, such as snowshoe hares and pygmy rabbits, which at risk from being overrun by them. Montane red Foxes, which have been declining in the presence coyotes, may benefit from the expansion of wolf.

However, the Canadian results show that coyotes may be more likely to be control if wolf spread across large areas. This magical combination is call an ecologically efficient density of wolf. Prior to our study, we didn’t know how many wolves were need to control coyotes.

This Is What It Means For Australian Dingoes

Dingoes in Australia often serve the same role as wolf in ecosystems, and they are frequently called top dogs. Foxes can also increase when dingoes are gone, just as coyotes would in the absence of wolf. This has dire consequences for native wildlife.

Our study show that dingoes, which are the top predators, won’t be capable of controlling lower-order predators like foxes if they’re found in small numbers and spread over large areas. This is a problem because humans have had a significant impact on the distribution and survival of dingoes. People who are involve in tourist or mining activities often come up against dingoes.

Is There A Way?

A strategy must be develop that allows humans to coexist with dingoes. This is a difficult task, especially when dingoes pose a threat to human businesses such as the livestock sector. Although the use of guardian animals as livestock protection is promising, we need to determine if this strategy works over large areas.

Another option is to pay farmers compensation for stock losses due to dingo attacks. It could be model on the American system that compensates for wolf damage in order to reduce conflict. However, such compensation must cover both direct (stock losses), and indirect (the effects of predation upon the health of livestock), which can be difficult to quantify.

The future of biodiversity and ecosystems at stake, as they are being destroy by feral cats and red foxes. The future of Australia’s agriculture, especially the sheep industry which has suffered for years from red foxes and dingoes, is also at stake. We may never see the true power of dingoes in protecting native Australian wildlife and controlling foxes and cat if they continue to be control as they are.

October 13

Data Will Now Go Straight To The White House Centres

Data Will Now Go Straight To The White House Centres

The US Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Which is led by epidemiologists, scientists, and physicians, is one of the most trusted sources of information during epidemics. The world is in dire need of authoritative information and the CDC has become a shadow of its former self. The CDC is now not in the forefront of a public health emergency for the first time since 1946. When it establish in a cramp Atlanta office.

Robert Redfield, CDC director, stood at the White House briefing rooms. Lectern on April 22 and admit that the US had been overwhelm by the coronavirus pandemic. Redfield was follow by President Donald Trump who said that Redfield had been totally misquote in his warning. About COVID-19 continuing to pose serious problems as the US enters its winter flu season in 2020.

Redfield was invite to clarify his statement and confirmed that. He had been correctly quote in his opinion about the difficult, complicated times ahead. Trump tried a new approach. Trump said that You may not even see corona returning back, he stated, again contradicting the career biologist. Just so you know.

Some pundits interpreted the exchange as confirmation that the CDC’s renowned. Expertise was being side line while the coronavirus continue its ravaging of the US. The New York Times report that the CDC was even bypass in data collection. Trump ordered hospitals to send COVID-19 data directly the White House.

Diminished Role Centres

The CDC was a hub of activity when faced with previous public health emergencies. They held regular press briefings, and develop guidance that was use by governments all over the world. The White House has almost completely erased the CDC’s role as public face for the COVID-19 pandemic response during the worst public health crisis in a century.

Former CDC leaders claim that this diminish role is evident because their scientific advice was never politicized in the past. CDC officials issued warnings as the COVID-19 crisis unfolded. However, they quickly disappeared from public view. Nancy Messonnier (director of the CDC’s National Centre for Immunization & Respiratory Diseases) predicted that the virus would not be contained and would spread to other parts of the country.

The stock market crashed and Messonnier was expelled from future White House press briefings. There was no CDC presence in White House press briefings about COVID-19 between March 9 and June 12. CDC made mistakes during the pandemic. This includes its initial attempts to create a COVID-19 test. The test kits were flawed, a problem that was compounded by slow efforts to correct the situation and severe delays in distribution of enough tests to the general public.

Many public health professionals are still baffle at the CDC’s inexplicable silence as the pandemic continues across the globe. Howard Koh, a former US assistant secretary of health, stated that they have been overlook. We need their scientific leadership now.

What Does This Mean For The Rest Of The World?

Another blow to the agency’s reputation is the fact that the CDC was not involve in collecting COVID-19 data. Instead, hospitals were order to transmit all COVID-19 patient information into a central Washington DC database.There will likely be a variety of knock-on effects. The new database won’t made available to the public. This raises questions about the accuracy and transparency.

According to the Department of Health and Human Services which issued the new order the change will allow the White House’s coronavirus taskforce to allocate resources. However, epidemiologists and experts in public health around the globe fear that the new system may make it more difficult for others to track the pandemic and access information.

All countries are affect by this because the CDC provides sound, independent guidance on public health issues like infectious diseases, health living, travel, disaster preparedness, drug efficacy, and healthy living. This information can adapt to other jurisdictions, which is crucial during a pandemic when uncertainty reigns. It is hard to remember a time when a public health emergency was cause by political pressure.

What’s Centres Next?

Despite all the challenges inherent in dealing with a pandemic in a real-time setting, the CDC is still the most well-placed agency in the US and the world to assist us in managing this crisis as safely and effectively as possible. Nations should begin to think about creating their own national centres for disease control in the absence of US leadership. These discussions in Australia have ongoing since 1990, but they are stall by lack of political will and cost. COVID-19 and the current demise of the CDC may provide the push needed to make those plans a reality.

October 13

Humans Inhabited North America In The Depths Of The Last Ice Age

Humans Inhabited North America In The Depths Of The Last Ice Age

According to two studies that I and my colleagues published today, humans lived in Mexico until 33,000 years ago. They may have arrived in Americas via the Pacific coast.

Many believe that the first people to reach the Americas were Asian big-game hunters who arrived in the Americas after the last Ice Age, around 13,000 years ago. This theory is call the Clovis first theory. It is based on the Clovis culture, which archaeologists have identified as having unique stone tools.

This theory was accept for most of the 20th Century. Recent archaeological evidence shows that humans existed in the Americas long before Clovis. However, it is not clear how long ago this was and remains a subject of intense academic debate.

What We Discovered In Chiquihuite Cave Humans

Chiquihuite Cave, an archaeological site located at 2,740m above the sea level in Zacatecas (Mexico), is Chiquihuite Cave. The University of Zacatecas’ Ciprian Ardelean has been leading excavations at the site for seven years. Nearly 2,000 pieces and tools made from stone have been discover.

These tools belong to a new type of material culture that has never seen before in the Americas. There are no obvious similarities to other cultural complexes. More than 200 specimens were discover below the archaeological layer, which corresponds to the peak period of the last Ice Age. This peak is call the Last Glacial Maximum by archaeologists.

The greatest extent of ice sheets was at this time between 26,000-19,000 years ago. The evidence from Chiquihuite Cave strongly suggests that humans existed in North America long before Clovis.

Due to the importance of the discovery, I joined a group of international researchers in studying Chiquihuite Cave. After a four-hour journey on foot, some of us were able to visit the site and witness the evidence firsthand. Our goals were to reconstruct the human environment and determine when the site was occupied.

My research at Chiquihuite Cave was primarily focus on the former. I was able to help build a chronology that included more than 50 optical and radiocarbon dates. The results, when combined with archaeological evidence, showed that humans lived in Chiquihuite as far back as 33,000 years ago. This was before the Pleistocene period end (around 12,000 years) and the cave was seal off.

Settlement Patterns

In a second paper I examine the larger pattern of human occupation in North America and Beringia (the ancient landbridge connecting America and Asia). This required me to analyse hundreds of dates from 42 archeological sites in North America, Beringia, and Chiquihuite Cave using a statistical tool called Bayesian-age modelling.

Analysis showed that there were people in North America prior to, during and immediately following the peak of last Ice Age. It wasn’t until much later, however, that the continent saw significant population growth.

This happened during the Greenland Interstadial 1 period of climate warmth at the end the Ice Age. It was a sudden acceleration of global warming that began around 14,700 years ago.

The three main stone tool traditions in the region were also discovered to have originated around the same time. This is in line with an increase of radiocarbon dates and archaeological sites at those sites as well as genetic data that points to a marked population growth.

Megafauna Large And Small Humans

The dramatic decline of megafauna large and small, including horses, camels, and mammoths, may have been caused by the rapid expansion of humans in a warmer time. We looked at the dates of megafauna’s last appearance and discovered that they disappeared largely within the following colder period.

The contribution of climate change to faunal extinctions (represented by rapid warming and cooling) cannot be completely excluded. Although the first human arrivals to the continent came from eastern Eurasia it appears that there was an early movement.

The coast is where we believe the route of the earlier arrivals to these new lands was. The possibility of inland travel being blocked would be due to Beringia’s partial submersion or the impassibility of the ice sheets that covered modern-day Canada

The results of both studies and the combined study are different from previous models and reveal a new story about the origins of American settlement. This is a fascinating and controversial journey that marks one of the largest expansions of modern humankind across the globe.